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Simple Machine is a mechanical device that changes the direction or magnitude of a force.
In general, they can be defined as the simplest mechanisms that use mechanical advantage to multiply force.
They can be used to increase the amount of the output force, at the cost of a proportional
decrease in the distance moved by the load.
The idea of a simple machine originated with the Greek philosopher Archimedes around the 3nd century BC,
who studied the Archimedean simple machines: lever, pulley, and screw. He discovered the principle of leverage, or
Heron of Alexandria (ca. 10-75 CE) in his work Mechanics lists 5 mechanisms with which a load can be set in motion:
winch, lever, pulley, wedge, and screw.
The complete dynamic theory of simple machines was worked out by Galileo Galilei in 1600 in Le Meccaniche. He was the first to understand that
simple machines don't create energy, only transform it.